Nanotechnologies changed our life and its duration once and for all. Using them, we have possibility to prevent, cure and accelerate rehabilitation of by far many illnesses. Until recent years, for example, children were prone to certain infectious diseases, for which there was no effective cure. Vaccines have almost eradicated some of these conditions. Another bright example is regarding surgical intervention. If you needed a major operation, you would be confined to bed for weeks. Nowadays many operations use less invasive procedures, requiring day surgery only. In addition, the survival rate for many cancers has improved considerably over the recent decades, due to development of chemotherapy to treat the condition. Continue reading “Most dangerous viruses under the spotlight” »
For the temperatures at which the waste can be converted into a plasma (over 6,000°C), implementing the reactor design is a complicated task, at least the situation is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Thus, the conditions of reliable operation of the reactor temperature process using a plasma heating should be in the range of from 900 to 1,200°C. This temperature level is well maintained in many other well-known and already mature technologies, which are based on pyrolysis and gasification processes. However, as the years of operating experience pass, all of these technologies hasn’t achieved the traditional burning of solid waste in terms of the technical and economic indicators. Continue reading “The downsides of high temperature plasma disposal” »
In aspiration to educate its customers, European Geophysical Services has launched a narrow-targeted media campaign aimed at increasing the level of understanding of borehole drilling processes. Being an expert in geophysics, UK-based company has already implemented over 150 borehole drilling projects, which is eventually one of the main company’s specializations.
The basics of horizontal wells
Horizontal well type implies having a stem portion angled to 90° vertically, although other wells drilled at a sharper angle may also fall under this definition. Depending on the horizontal trajectory of the wellbore and drilling technology adopted, horizontal wells are arbitrarily divided into four groups.
Wells with a large radius of curvature of the set are drilled using conventional equipment for directional wells. They are characterized by a set tempo curvature of 1-2˚/10 m and horizontal trunks length of 1500m and more. These wells can be deep enough and have a trunk diameter of up to 444.49 mm.
Horizontal wells are drilled with an average radius of curvature of special downhole motors with bent sub and stabilizers. The pace for the curvature of these wells is set at 3 – 7710 m, the radius of curvature equals 45-300m, while the of diameter horizontal borehole is 311.2 mm.
Horizontal wells are drilled in small radius of curvature with special drilling systems of two types. In mechanical rotary systems composite curving drilling direction with an inner drive shaft to the bit is used. Horizontal wells of small radius of curvature are characterized by a set rate of curvature of 30-100° to 10 m; 90° tilt is gained within 6-12 m range. Horizontal wells of this type are limited by the diameter of the wells drilled by 114,3-165,1 mm diameter bit; the usual length of horizontal section is 180-300 m.
Ultrashort horizontal wells are designed for the development of heavy oil and tar sands technology sidetracking. The technology is based on the use of jetting a downhole drilling head lifting system placed in the reservoir against the expanded area of the vertical well. With such a system of vertical shaft can be quickly spudded several radial horizontal holes with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 30-60 m. Continue reading “Horizontal Wells & Their Profiles” »
Graphene boasts a truly magnificent and unique feature: its speed electrical conductivity is comparable to the speed of light. The electrical conductivity of the materials is provided by the mobility of electrons in atoms. For example, in metals a certain amount of electrons is located in a so-called zone of conductivity, which allows them to move freely between the atoms. Semiconductors in their turn have a so-called band gap, through which the electrons need to jump over so the material becomes electrically conducting. To achieve this, more energy, such as heat, is used.
So, although grapheme it is not a metal, it features no no gap, so that the electrons are free to move, which poses a serious problem: a graphene transistor can not be turned off completely, which means that the device containing such a transistor, will keep on permanently consuming electricity. However, there is an upside to this. Due to the fact that the mass of the electron graphene hardly affects the electric fields of other charged particles, it is capable of moving at a fantastic speed. So fast that its speed can only be described by Einstein’s theory of relativity, and the grapheme himself can be compared with particles accelerator. Such a mind-boggling speed of movement of electrons allows them reacting sensitively to high frequency electromagnetic fields, which in this case means that a graphene transistor is switched on and off very quickly.