Most dangerous viruses under the spotlight

Nanotechnologies changed our life and its duration once and for all. Using them, we have possibility to prevent, cure and accelerate rehabilitation of by far many illnesses. Until recent years, for example, children were prone to certain infectious diseases, for which there was no effective cure. Vaccines have almost eradicated some of these conditions. Another bright example is regarding surgical intervention. If you needed a major operation, you would be confined to bed for weeks. Nowadays many operations use less invasive procedures, requiring day surgery only. In addition, the survival rate for many cancers has improved considerably over the recent decades, due to development of chemotherapy to treat the condition.

The problem is that there is no need to suffer from sickness if you could get ahead of it. Prevention tools like nanoscopes definitely could help you to do it. Manchester University’s scientists discover the most powerful nanoscope few years ago. It was called microsphere nanoscope due to the fact that it manages to produce an image using tiny optically transparent quartz glasses. Then, optical microscope from microlens could easily improve an image and define the smallest part of it. Could you imagine that for your eyes the objects in size of nearly fifty nanometers is visible? In contrast to last decades where microscopes could only display some small objects, nanoscopes have done unbelievable breakthroughs. The opportunity to take a look inside the cell and observe outer boundaries of the objects is nowhere near. In fact, the nanoscope with such resolution permits to study the actions of live viruses that guarantee to improve understanding of their nature and let researches come up with brilliant ideas and develop different methods to deal with them effectively.

nanoscope services UK

Living cell is not the limit for upscale equipment such as nanoscope of LIG Tech that makes it possible to watch objects that are even smaller than living objects without destroying them in process. This perspective promises completely up-to-date discoveries in the various fields of science. That’s why nanotechnologies should not be underestimates, but even vice versa, actively used in all spheres of social life. Today cancer is the most horrible and hardly curable disease. However, nanoscience could not only detect, but also treat it at the molecular level. Imagine that with the help of hand-held tools you could pass check-up not leaving your home. It is pretty reasonable because for many patients trip to hospital seems to be stressful and exhausting and there is likelihood that visiting hospital, in most cases, deteriorates the state of patient health.

All in all, the progress in medical sphere is considerably slow. However, over the last years, the scientists have made some worthy breakthroughs that help in faster detecting, well-timed prevention and improvement of life in general. In few years, we are all hope that medical improvements will change the cause of history dramatically and all of us must forget about maladies in perpetuity.

The downsides of high temperature plasma disposal

For the temperatures at which the waste can be converted into a plasma (over 6,000°C), implementing the reactor design is a complicated task, at least the situation is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Thus, the conditions of reliable operation of the reactor temperature process using a plasma heating should be in the range of from 900 to 1,200°C. This temperature level is well maintained in many other well-known and already mature technologies, which are based on pyrolysis and gasification processes. However, as the years of operating experience pass, all of these technologies hasn’t achieved the traditional burning of solid waste in terms of the technical and economic indicators.

Environmental benefits of plants with plasma technology compared with incineration, including addressing the problem of dioxin, are actual for the large productions. First of all it should be noted that almost all modern MSW incinerators are provided with the regulated emissions of harmful substances in flue gases, which if necessary may be significantly optimised.

Reduced levels of dioxins to standard values is performed in two stages using methods and scrubbing process. This also applies to installations using plasma torches. Despite the high temperature (above 1,200 – 1,300 ° C, and in some cases up to 1,600°C) at which reportedly (according to supporters plasma method) another dioxins synthesis generally does not occur at all sites with plasma torches and mounted equipment for the removal of dioxins. In the comparative tables, powered by analytical materials, it is mostly often indicated that the quantity of dioxin emissions is lower than those provided for by Directive 2000/76/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of Waste Incineration, meaning the presence of dioxins in the flue gases is yet attaching. Therefore, we can say that the burning of the resulting synthesis gas dioxins occur and additional cleaning of flue gases for normal values is required.

As for the decision of the general scrubbing of the synthesis gas produced by gasification of MSW using plasma heating, it is a relatively new issue, and thus its cleaning circuit is rather complicated. Thus, for example, the technology of Simdean, an expert in plasma waste disposal and industrial waste disposal solutions manufacturing, syngas passes successively through scrubber, a spray tower, wet electrostatic filter with activated carbon and fed to desulphurisation, and selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides. Further, in some technologies quenching gas is used, which essence lies in the fact that the hot synthesis gas exits the reactor at about 1200°C, and then cooled in a water tube heat exchanger to about 200°C. It should be noted that in this case, there are serious doubts concerning the application of normally used in such cases tubular heat exchanger. Moreover, the operation in general of any heat exchanger at the dust-laden gas with a temperature of 1,200°C is questionable. The synthesis gas contains fusible particles that can intoxicated the heat exchange surface completely.

Horizontal Wells & Their Profiles

In aspiration to educate its customers, European Geophysical Services has launched a narrow-targeted media campaign aimed at increasing the level of understanding of borehole drilling processes. Being an expert in geophysics, UK-based company has already implemented over 150 borehole drilling projects, which is eventually one of the main company’s specializations.

The basics of horizontal wells

Horizontal well type implies having a stem portion angled to 90° vertically, although other wells drilled at a sharper angle may also fall under this definition. Depending on the horizontal trajectory of the wellbore and drilling technology adopted, horizontal wells are arbitrarily divided into four groups.

Wells with a large radius of curvature of the set are drilled using conventional equipment for directional wells. They are characterized by a set tempo curvature of 1-2˚/10 m and horizontal trunks length of 1500m and more. These wells can be deep enough and have a trunk diameter of up to 444.49 mm.

Horizontal wells are drilled with an average radius of curvature of special downhole motors with bent sub and stabilizers. The pace for the curvature of these wells is set at 3 – 7710 m, the radius of curvature equals 45-300m, while the of diameter horizontal borehole is 311.2 mm.

Horizontal wells are drilled in small radius of curvature with special drilling systems of two types. In mechanical rotary systems composite curving drilling direction with an inner drive shaft to the bit is used. Horizontal wells of small radius of curvature are characterized by a set rate of curvature of 30-100° to 10 m; 90° tilt is gained within 6-12 m range. Horizontal wells of this type are limited by the diameter of the wells drilled by 114,3-165,1 mm diameter bit; the usual length of horizontal section is 180-300 m.

Ultrashort horizontal wells are designed for the development of heavy oil and tar sands technology sidetracking. The technology is based on the use of jetting a downhole drilling head lifting system placed in the reservoir against the expanded area of the vertical well. With such a system of vertical shaft can be quickly spudded several radial horizontal holes with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 30-60 m. Continue reading “Horizontal Wells & Their Profiles” »

Graphene The Incredible

Graphene boasts a truly magnificent and unique feature: its speed electrical conductivity is comparable to the speed of light. The electrical conductivity of the materials is provided by the mobility of electrons in atoms. For example, in metals a certain amount of electrons is located in a so-called zone of conductivity, which allows them to move freely between the atoms. Semiconductors in their turn have a so-called band gap, through which the electrons need to jump over so the material becomes electrically conducting. To achieve this, more energy, such as heat, is used.

So, although grapheme it is not a metal, it features no no gap, so that the electrons are free to move, which poses a serious problem: a graphene transistor can not be turned off completely, which means that the device containing such a transistor, will keep on permanently consuming electricity. However, there is an upside to this. Due to the fact that the mass of the electron graphene hardly affects the electric fields of other charged particles, it is capable of moving at a fantastic speed. So fast that its speed can only be described by Einstein’s theory of relativity, and the grapheme himself can be compared with particles accelerator. Such a mind-boggling speed of movement of electrons allows them reacting sensitively to high frequency electromagnetic fields, which in this case means that a graphene transistor is switched on and off very quickly.

The revolution looming on the horizon

Why do scientists still tinkering with this wayward material? Actually, the opportunities of graphene are truly endless; some even say that grapheme is the material of the future.Unless scientists can create a graphene bandgap, mankind will step to the next level of scientific and technical progress. Thus graphene can be utilised for production of any components, even entire power chains with mind-blowing conductivity.

A group of experts from IBM Research Center have come close to creating a transistor that can be switched one hundred billion times per second. Unfortunately, such a transistor is not yet possible to completely turn off. Maybe it will not be a hindrance to use in some mobile phones or radars. But certainly, it is not suitable for the production of computer equipment.

However, scientists are working tirelessly. Specialists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, in collaboration with, perhaps, one of the most famous graphene companies 2-DTech, found experimentally that if you put a double layer of graphene is in an electric field, then there is the same band gap, and its size can be adjusted by changing the strength of the field. And Professor Robert Haddon of the University of California proposed to apply to the carbon strips chemical elements affecting the electrical conductivity of graphene.

Graphene provides great prospects in the production of light-sensitive elements for fiber-optic networks. It can be an excellent detector of harmful gases and toxic substances. Recently, the first prototype of mobile phone with a screen of the graphene layer, stitched with metal fibers, has been released. This screen will not break and will not crack even if the phone is dropped. The commercial enterprises, 2-DTECH for example, believes that graphene uses are unlimited.