Horizontal Wells & Their Profiles

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In aspiration to educate its customers, European Geophysical Services has launched a narrow-targeted media campaign aimed at increasing the level of understanding of borehole drilling processes. Being an expert in geophysics, UK-based company has already implemented over 150 borehole drilling projects, which is eventually one of the main company’s specializations.

The basics of horizontal wells

Horizontal well type implies having a stem portion angled to 90° vertically, although other wells drilled at a sharper angle may also fall under this definition. Depending on the horizontal trajectory of the wellbore and drilling technology adopted, horizontal wells are arbitrarily divided into four groups.

Wells with a large radius of curvature of the set are drilled using conventional equipment for directional wells. They are characterized by a set tempo curvature of 1-2˚/10 m and horizontal trunks length of 1500m and more. These wells can be deep enough and have a trunk diameter of up to 444.49 mm.

Horizontal wells are drilled with an average radius of curvature of special downhole motors with bent sub and stabilizers. The pace for the curvature of these wells is set at 3 – 7710 m, the radius of curvature equals 45-300m, while the of diameter horizontal borehole is 311.2 mm.

Horizontal wells are drilled in small radius of curvature with special drilling systems of two types. In mechanical rotary systems composite curving drilling direction with an inner drive shaft to the bit is used. Horizontal wells of small radius of curvature are characterized by a set rate of curvature of 30-100° to 10 m; 90° tilt is gained within 6-12 m range. Horizontal wells of this type are limited by the diameter of the wells drilled by 114,3-165,1 mm diameter bit; the usual length of horizontal section is 180-300 m.

Ultrashort horizontal wells are designed for the development of heavy oil and tar sands technology sidetracking. The technology is based on the use of jetting a downhole drilling head lifting system placed in the reservoir against the expanded area of the vertical well. With such a system of vertical shaft can be quickly spudded several radial horizontal holes with a diameter of 100 mm and a length of 30-60 m. Continue reading “Horizontal Wells & Their Profiles” »

Stainless Steel Flanges – The Characteristic Features

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Steel flanges represent connecting elements of flat, ring or disk form with a number of holes required for the fixture. Steel flanges are mounted using bolts and studs that can tightly connect the piping and pipe fittings. Such equipment can withstand almost any pressure, but the flanges for pipes should be regularly pull in order to avoid reducing leakage.

Stainless flanges help connect a number of pieces of pipes without worrying about the possible occurrence of leaks in bond areas. Steel flanges require regular monitoring, which allows maintaining the efficiency of the pipeline system at a decent and secure level. In this case one can be fully confident that the tightness at the level of the network will be preserved and the flange will perform its function properly.

Manufacture of flanges: basic classification

Nowadays it is customary to use the popular classification of flanges that implies dividing them into the flat, threaded and сollar. Flat steel flanges can be attached to the back surface of the pipes. That is why some of the flanges have a larger inner diameter than the outer diameter of the pipe. By choosing this kind of connecting equipment, an engineer should take into account not only the values ​​of nominal pressure, but also the resistance to operating temperature and the transport medium.

Neck flanges are mainly designed to be welded to the butt joint of the pipe. Thus, the magnitude of the inner diameter of the connecting equipment remains completely identical to the diameter of the pipe. With the ability to provide high levels of integrity and reliability in the joint, stainless steel flange is commonly used in modern communications systems (in turn, threaded flanges are typically not used in laying piping).

Steel flanges – the specifics of operation

The average lifespan of flanges manufactured under a complete set of pipelines depends on the quality of their production. Thus, making a choice in favor of a decent vendor is essential to guarantee long years of trouble-free operation. By cooperating with AlexanderComley production facilities, servicing a good number of industries and producing a wide array of flanges and tube plates, you can be sure that the piping system equipped with sturdy stainless steel flanges will effectively serve you faithfully without costly maintenance for years to come. From custom options to standard API/ANSI solutions, there is a rich variety of products to choose from, just drop in at the website’s gallery to have a look.

Flanges for pipes are primarily designed for operation in temperatures ranging from -253°C to +600° C, while steel flanges withstand temperatures from -70 ° C to 450°C.

AlexanderComely experts confirm the fact that steel butt weld fittings uk have a considerable advantage: they are relatively easy to install, that’s why they are massively used when performing repairs. In addition, stainless flanges can be used in hard to reach areas of pipeline systems, especially the ones servicing toxic or flammable materials. It is also important to note that planar flanges may be used at a pressure not exceeding 25 kgf/cm², while the neck flanges steel can withstand a pressure of 200 kgf/cm².

Coffee Time: Support The Cancer Patients

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cover-300x225Forster Dean Solicitors, a law firm finding itself on the crest of a wave with and covering the North West and the Midlands, participate in the ‘World’s Biggest Coffee Morning’ to drive revenue for charity purposes. The main aim of the series of events is to attract funds in support of Macmillan Cancer fundraising.

Forster Dean’s main sphere of specialisation is accident claims and personal injuries, though the company is grinding away to give more value than legal assistance to particular people as well as the whole community. Impressed by the passion of Macmillan enthusiasts, lending a helping hand to those who need it most, Forster Dean has joined the ranks of contributors to support the good purpose.

In aspiration to make the world a better place, the company is hoping the efforts will help in saving the lives of the people. Thus, the company will host a series of Coffee Mornings in the majority of its offices throughout the entire regions of coverage. The organization of events will supposedly not only boost gathering funds, but will also create awareness. Continue reading “Coffee Time: Support The Cancer Patients” »

Graphene The Incredible

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Graphene boasts a truly magnificent and unique feature: its speed electrical conductivity is comparable to the speed of light. The electrical conductivity of the materials is provided by the mobility of electrons in atoms. For example, in metals a certain amount of electrons is located in a so-called zone of conductivity, which allows them to move freely between the atoms. Semiconductors in their turn have a so-called band gap, through which the electrons need to jump over so the material becomes electrically conducting. To achieve this, more energy, such as heat, is used.

So, although grapheme it is not a metal, it features no no gap, so that the electrons are free to move, which poses a serious problem: a graphene transistor can not be turned off completely, which means that the device containing such a transistor, will keep on permanently consuming electricity. However, there is an upside to this. Due to the fact that the mass of the electron graphene hardly affects the electric fields of other charged particles, it is capable of moving at a fantastic speed. So fast that its speed can only be described by Einstein’s theory of relativity, and the grapheme himself can be compared with particles accelerator. Such a mind-boggling speed of movement of electrons allows them reacting sensitively to high frequency electromagnetic fields, which in this case means that a graphene transistor is switched on and off very quickly.

The revolution looming on the horizon

Why do scientists still tinkering with this wayward material? Actually, the opportunities of graphene are truly endless; some even say that grapheme is the material of the future.Unless scientists can create a graphene bandgap, mankind will step to the next level of scientific and technical progress. Thus graphene can be utilised for production of any components, even entire power chains with mind-blowing conductivity.

A group of experts from IBM Research Center have come close to creating a transistor that can be switched one hundred billion times per second. Unfortunately, such a transistor is not yet possible to completely turn off. Maybe it will not be a hindrance to use in some mobile phones or radars. But certainly, it is not suitable for the production of computer equipment.

However, scientists are working tirelessly. Specialists from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA, in collaboration with, perhaps, one of the most famous graphene companies 2-DTech, found experimentally that if you put a double layer of graphene is in an electric field, then there is the same band gap, and its size can be adjusted by changing the strength of the field. And Professor Robert Haddon of the University of California proposed to apply to the carbon strips chemical elements affecting the electrical conductivity of graphene.

Graphene provides great prospects in the production of light-sensitive elements for fiber-optic networks. It can be an excellent detector of harmful gases and toxic substances. Recently, the first prototype of mobile phone with a screen of the graphene layer, stitched with metal fibers, has been released. This screen will not break and will not crack even if the phone is dropped. The commercial enterprises, 2-DTECH for example, believes that graphene uses are unlimited.

The Causes Of Denture Cracks & Fractures

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Any type of denture, removable or permanent prosthesis is subjected to constant physical and extreme thermal loads: therefore, cracks, scratches and fractures are not rare. Repairing of dental prostheses is quite a demanded business – a skilled specialist will hardly be lacking requests. If you are looking for a proven and reliable denture repair Manchester agency, Qdentix may be the right place.

Even when installing the denture a question of repairing may arise. This procedure can be both a walk in the park mission, performed in the presence of the patient, as well as a time consuming piece of work (up to several days or weeks); in either event, the problems are resolved in nine cases out of ten.

When dental prostheses repair is required

Even though a denture is designed for a particular person to fit perfectly, it can still break down and get subjected to abrasions, cuts, and etc. Repair of dental prostheses is a procedure that is typically a task that is needed to be implemented urgently, while the reasons are as follows:

  • physical damage
  • peeling or disconnection of some parts
  • discomfort when wearing appeared with time
  • significant changes in denture color

Denture repairing is better to be requested from the agency produced them, but getting in touch with professional repairers is also a wise decision. As a rule, the expert assesses the damage within minutes, makes a diagnosis and announces the price (if the repairing is possible). From a financial point of reference, repairing even a badly damage denture is cheaper than purchasing a very basic new prosthesis; the cost of repairing depends on the complexity of the work and the type of failure.

The causes of prosthesis failure

Dentures are more likely to break in case of careless handling; another widespread reason for a failure is a wrong distribution of load. If during the manufacture some element is crafted with a defect, the prosthesis may wear out very quickly. On average, a nicely-crafted denture can be used for 5 to 10 years, but the installation may significantly cut this period. Dentures repair sometimes just because they served their time. They simply return to the state in which they can be operated again. Sometimes the repair of dental prostheses is necessary because in the manufacture were admitted some shortcomings. Often prosthesis made ​​of several layers of material, and it is impossible to see that there are some inaccuracies, but during use they appear.

The prosthesis can be loosely attached to the surface (tooth or gums), which is also a common cause of a failure. This can be eliminated by fixing creams and gels, though it is better to consult a doctor. Improper care can also cause breakage. To prolong the lifespan the dentures are needed to be washed after wearing and stored under recommended conditions. You will need a special brush and paste for cleaning and rinsing the prosthesis (using conventional materials decreases the lifetime as well).

Natural Remedies For Hayfever Of Miraculous Effect

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Summer is in full swing, however, it is an extremely tough period for some since an allergy season is booming. Hay fever is an allergic disease provoked by tiny bat pollen. The particles fall on the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory tract and cause acute inflammatory condition. Townspeople are more subjected to the disease, although the concentration of pollen in the cities is less than in the countryside. However, the environmental situation – the exhaust gases, air pollution and other factors often cause chronic inflammations of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, which also contributes to the development of hay fever. This disease is characterised by distinct seasons – some plants flowering periods: March – April, May-June and August-September. The classic symptoms of hay fever are as follows:

  • Severe itching in the nose, sneezing debilitating (early stages) and watery runny nose (later stages).
  • Simultaneously develops eyelid swelling and redness of the eyes; excessive tearing begins, the face becomes puffy.
  • Headaches, malaises, fatigue, and even an increase in temperature. Irritability, sharply reduced appetite, disturbed sleep.
  • Hay fever may be accompanied by skin rash in the form of urticaria, dermatitis, and may even angioedema.
  • In dry, sunny weather, hay fever sufferers feel much worse than in rainy. On colder days, the symptoms may not show up at all.

Fortunately, the symptoms may be levelled due to a range of natural remedies for hayfever and simple complexes of measures:

  1. Wash the eyes and nose with distilled or tap water regularly.
  2. Wear sunglasses, thus you reduce the probability of getting pollen on eye conjunctiva.
  3. Avoid eating foods that have cross-react with pollen; foods containing artificial components, stabilisers, flavour enhancers and flavour, refined products also increase the severity of hay fever.
  4. Drink at least 7-8 glasses of pure water a day.
  5. Give acupuncture and physiotherapy courses a try, sessions in the salt chambers with a ‘mountain’ or ‘sea’ air may also be helpful.

More info www.herbal-health.uk

Personal Injury Compensation Claims For Injuries At Work

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The individuals got involved in accidents at work not on their fault and suffered a workplace injury are fully eligible to submit a claim for compensation. However, even in the cases where a 3rd party fault is pretty obvious, you will still need to prove that the injury suffered is the result of negligence. In this case the 3rd party is represented by your employer, so the establishment will cover the damage received if the claim is approved. In this case you may want to consider the services of the solicitors working under no win no fee agreements specialised in personal injuries, from minor damage to serious brain injury claims.

As in any accident claim, it is obligatory to prove the fault of the 3rd party in the injury suffered or disease contracted, and in this case personal injury solicitors will assist you with collecting evidence and all the necessary legal documents to present to an insuring company.

Unfortunately, even in serious head injury claims cases it may take from several weeks (under the best case scenario) to several months and even years. Despite the fact the majority of cases is settled at the insurance companies level, there is a chance the case can be brought to trial.

Unfortunately, a large group of those suffered occupational injury ignores the powerful legal instruments, though according to labor legislation every employer is not only responsible for employees protection, but also for contractors and visiting customers. Therefore, the responsibility includes providing the staff with all the necessary safety equipment, machinery and tools that passed quality certification. Actually, the list is comprised of myriads of items (including doors obstruction and heavy objects lifting training), so the odds to receive compensation are more than good in an average case.

Offshore Zones – Types, Benefits & Risks

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Nowadays many entrepreneurs tend to grow their businesses exclusively in offshore zones. Asking why? The answer is pretty simple – such businessmen are partially exempted from daunting responsibilities of paying taxes, while the only requirement is developing business in the offshore zone. However, as in any other option, offshoring has its own nuances, pros and cons.

Offshore zones benefits

The main advantage of an average offshore zone is lack of taxes, while a home country may oblige a business to tough taxing policy that neither allows normal development nor encouraging potential revenue. In addition, the businessman can take advantage of an opportunity to cooperate with foreign markets, which can significantly accelerate the growth of the company.

Another vital advantage is an ability to open accounts in the most developed countries, which enables you to manage your money at any time, just when it is needed most. Typically, there is no need to submit reports and pass numerous audits. Most importantly, it is not obligatory for business owners to reside abroad to manage their own business; the low and top level management can be delegated to a protege. Offshore zones bribe the businessmen involved in industries requiring passing rigid regulation procedures. Gambling, adult or betting entrepreneurs are likely to resort to offshoring when launching entertainment or online casino website in order to keep out of certification and other complicated processes.

Disadvantages and risks

In particular, the choice of an offshore zone must be carried out with the utmost attention. Moreover, cooperation with popular European firms may be hardly impossible due to the fact that the latter do not trust organizations working in the offshore areas.

Offshoring geography

Today there are three main types of offshore zones – classic, luxury and others. In particular, the most respectable zones are considered to be those where an entrepreneur must submit reports and pay taxes.

Here is a nutty fact: according to DGFEV, a far-famed German gambling review platoform, more than 50% of European casino revenue goes to offshore-based companies.

By geographical location there are several major offshore zones groups to mention. Caribbean group offers quite standard benefits – the convenience of simple transactions, the lack of audit, accounting and taxation. At the same time entrepreneurs working in this area are typically eligible for full confidentiality of all transactions.

The second group includes a number of islands, including Jersey, Guernsey and Maine. The cooperation schemes offered here are almost identical to the previous group. The only difference lies only in the fact that when you open a company in the offshore zone must be shown all the basic data about the owner.

Cyprus and Gibraltar is another group on the list. With a small percentage tax rate and obligatory audit, these zones are quite popular and prestigious. Actually, launching a company in such offshores is quite costly undertaking.

The fourth group is represented by European countries, such as Switzerland and Luxembourg. The businessmen are mainly subjected to taxation here, but in some circumstances paying taxes is not obligatory.

Finally, the fifth Asian group includes Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Registration and audit procedures are required here; and if in Singapore and Hong Kong has no taxes, business owners are forced to pay three percent tax in Malaysia.